Managing our finances can be quite complex and daunting especially while dealing with bigger amounts. But it is not such a thing to worry about!! To manage the bigger amount finances, we just require or must be aware of sound knowledge of various terms that shows a great impact on your financial wellbeing.
Well, not only in the field of finances but in various fields where math calculation is required, we are in need of using large numbers. Large numbers include Nonillion, Millard, and Virgintillion. We all are very familiar with million, billion, and trillions but I hope we rarely hear these names of large numbers like Nonillion, Millard, etc. So, today we are going to learn more about our bizarre terms and what exactly they mean. In this article, we are going to discuss on usage and derivation of large number names. If possible we will also try to learn about their potential extensions. Let’s begin.
Understanding Very Large Numbers
Understanding large numbers helps to think in terms of groups of zeros. For ex: 1,000,000,000,000. As I already told you, understanding names of large numbers is very much useful when you enter in one of several fields that deal with big mathematical calculations, including scientific fields. Have you ever think of what number comes after trillion? I would expect the answer, which might be, ‘Yes Of Course’. But not frequently used right!
You all know the value of ‘zero’ in calculations. Without zero, there is no value to the mathematical calculations and of course the value of zero is calculated depending on its place and position. Coming to our modern calculus, there is no modern electronics, no modern automation and engineering, no modern world, etc. So, we should keep on teaching our next generations about the importance of ‘Zero’.
Coming to our topic, if we are asked to name or write a large number or any simple number, firstly, we concentrate on the place of zero and how many times it is repeating in a number. A good way to do this is knowing about placevalue chart. Here I have shown some examples to make you understand easier.
Example1: Ten Million
Millions 
Thousands 
Ones 

Hundreds 

Tens 
1 

Ones 
0 
Millions 
Thousands 
Ones 

Hundreds 
0 
0 

Tens 
1 
0 
0 
Ones 
0 
0 
0 
To write ‘Ten Million’, we need to write 10 in the millions family as shown in the first table. And then we need to fill the rest of the places (Thousands and one’s family) with zeroes. Finally, writing a ‘Ten Million’ is done.
Example2: Six Million and Fifteen Thousand
To write 6 Million and Fifteen Thousand, we need to enter six in millions family at one’s place and fifteen at thousands family at ten’s and one’s place. Rest of the places in thousands and one’s family are filled with zeroes. That’s it! We are done with writing 6,015,000. We used comma in the space between the families.
Millions 
Thousands 
Ones 

Hundreds 

Tens 
1 

Ones 
6 
5 
Millions 
Thousands 
Ones 

Hundreds 
0 
0 

Tens 
1 
0 

Ones 
6 
5 
0 
In this way, we can learn the importance of zeroes and especially children’s understand the concept of place value holders and zeroes placement values.
Reading large numbers
Naming and reading big numbers is relatively easy! In the above table, consider reading the number in each family box followed by name of the family itself, suppose starting with millions then followed by thousands and lastly by one’s family. This is the standard way to read a large number. Give some examples in table formats to your children and ask them to read out the numbers. It would be a good practice for children to understand and learn very big numbers.
Now let us discuss about Naming Very Big Numbers…
The following table helps us to track multiples of 10 as the larger the number is, the more zeroes are required.
Name 
Number of Zeros 
Groups of 3 Zeros 
Ten 
1 
0 
Hundred 
2 
0 
Thousand 
3 
1 (1,000) 
Ten thousand 
4 
1 (10,000) 
Hundred thousand 
5 
1 (100,000) 
Million 
6 
2 (1,000,000) 
Billion 
9 
3(1,000,000,000) 
Trillion 
12 
4 (1,000,000,000,000) 
Quadrillion 
15 
5 
Quintillion 
18 
6 
Sextillion 
21 
7 
Septillion 
24 
8 
Octillion 
27 
9 
Nonillion 
30 
10 
Decillion 
33 
11 
Undecillion 
36 
12 
Duodecillion 
39 
13 
Tredecillion 
42 
14 
Quattuordecillion 
45 
15 
Quindecillion 
48 
16 
Sexdecillion 
51 
17 
Septendecillion 
54 
18 
Octodecillion 
57 
19 
Novemdecillion 
60 
20 
Vigintillion 
63 
21 
Centillion 
303 
101 
Generally, naming very large numbers is done using two main systems i.e. scientific notation and naming by grouping. Let us understand with an example:
In scientific notation, 700 000 000 000 000 000 000 is denoted as 7 x 10^{20} as there are 20 zeroes after number 7. If the same large number is asked to name by grouping, then it is denoted as ‘five hundred quintillion’ (American) or Trillion (European). Don’t panic, I will tell you the detailed naming system of large numbers in American, European, and British form.
The American way of naming large numbers is different from the Europeans and British. Americans use ‘short form’ where as Europeans use ‘long form while naming very large numbers. The main reason behind this is America’s finance. Based on thousands, Short form is designed and based on millions, Long form is designed in calculations. We will see an example to understand this easily.
A Billion is read or written as ‘One Thousand Millions’ i.e. 10^{9 }in short form while the same is written and read as ‘One Million Millions’ I.e. 10^{12} in long form. In the below table I am going to show you all how large numbers are denoted and called in American British, and European countries. After that I will also explain about Australian Naming system of very large numbers.
Scientific Notation 
British Name (Long Form) 
European Name (Long Form) 
American Name (Short Form) 
10^{99} 
Thousand sexdecillion 
Sexdecilliard 
Duotrigintillion 
10^{96} 
Sexdecillion 
Sexdecillion 
Untrigintillion 
10^{93} 
Thousand quindecillion 
Quindecilliard 
Trigintillion 
10^{90} 
Quindecillion 
Quindecillion 
Novemvigintillion 
10^{87} 
Thousand quattuordecillion 
Quattuordecilliard 
Octovigintillion 
10^{84} 
Quattuordecillion 
Quattuordecillion 
Septenvigintillion 
10^{81} 
Thousand tredecillion 
Tredecilliard 
Sexvigintillion 
10^{78} 
Tredecillion 
Tredecillion 
Quinvigintillion 
10^{75} 
Thousand duodecillion 
Duodecilliard 
Quattuorvigintillion 
10^{72} 
Duodecillion 
Duodecillion 
Trevigintillion 
10^{69} 
Thousand undecillion 
Undecilliard 
Duovigintillion 
10^{66} 
Undecillion 
Undecillion 
Unvigintillion 
10^{63} 
Thousand decillion 
Decilliard 
Vigintillion 
10^{60} 
Decillion 
Decillion 
Novemdecillion 
10^{57} 
Thousand nonillion 
Nonilliard 
Octodecillion 
10^{54} 
Nonillion 
Nonillion 
Septendecillion 
10^{51} 
Thousand octillion 
Octilliard 
Sexdecillion 
10^{48} 
Octillion 
Octillion 
Quindecillion 
10^{45} 
Thousand septillion 
Septilliard 
Quattuordecillion 
10^{42} 
Septillion 
Septillion 
Tredecillion 
10^{39} 
Thousand sextillion 
Sextilliard 
Duodecillion 
10^{36} 
Sextillion 
Sextillion 
Undecillion 
10^{33} 
Thousand quintillion 
Quintilliard 
Decillion 
10^{30} 
Quintillion 
Quintillion 
Nonillion 
10^{27} 
Thousand quadrillion 
Quadrilliard 
Octillion 
10^{24} 
Quadrillion 
Quadrillion 
Septillion 
10^{21} 
Thousand trillion 
Trilliard 
Sextillion 
10^{18} 
Trillion 
Trillion 
Quintillion 
10^{15} 
Thousand billion 
Billiard 
Quadrillion 
10^{12} 
Billion 
Billion 
Trillion 
10^{9} 
Thousand million 
Milliard 
Billion 
10^{6} 
Million 
Million 
Million 
10^{5} 
Hundred thousand 
Hundred thousand 
Hundred thousand 
10^{4} 
Ten thousand 
Ten thousand 
Ten thousand 
10^{3} 
Thousand 
Thousand 
Thousand 
10^{2} 
Hundred 
Hundred 
Hundred 
10^{1} 
Ten 
Ten 
Ten 
10^{0} 
One 
One 
One 
We got to know that even the British used ‘Long Form’ to name large numbers. But the change in United Kingdom (UK) from long form to short form had happened in 1974. Currently, short form is the most common way of naming very large numbers in most English speaking countries.
Googol is another mathematical term used to denote a huge quantity, which is a one followed by one hundred zeroes i.e. 10^{100. }Googolplex and Googolplexian are the number names, which are even bigger out there. Googolplex is a number ten followed by googol of zeroes i.e. 10^{google }In scientific form, Googolplex is denoted as 10^{Ten duotrigintillion} or 10^{10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. }The world’s second largest number with a name is Googolplexian. It is a number with googolplex of zeroes.
Milton Sirotta invented the names googol and googolplex. Interestingly, these names for larger numbers inspired an internet company, Google along with its corporate headquarters, the Googleplex.
Number 
Number of Zeros 
Name 
10^{100} 
100 
googol 
10^{googol} 
a lot more zeros than I can fit here 
googolplex 
Standard Dictionary Numbers
Name 
Short Scale (US, Eastern Europe,English Canadian, Australia, and Modern British) 
Long Scale (Western, Central Europe, Older British, and French Canadian) 
Centillion 
10^{303} 
10^{600} 
Vigintillion 
10^{63} 
10^{120} 
Novemdecillion 
10^{60} 
10^{114} 
Octodecillion 
10^{57} 
10^{108} 
Septendecillion 
10^{54} 
10^{102} 
Sexdecillion 
10^{51} 
10^{96} 
Quindecillion 
10^{48} 
10^{90} 
Quattuordecillion 
10^{45} 
10^{84} 
Tredecillion 
10^{42} 
10^{78} 
Duodecillion 
10^{39} 
10^{72} 
Undecillion 
10^{36} 
10^{66} 
Decillion 
10^{33} 
10^{60} 
Nonillion 
10^{30} 
10^{54} 
Octillion 
10^{27} 
10^{48} 
Septillion 
10^{24} 
10^{42} 
Sextillion 
10^{21} 
10^{36} 
Quintillion 
10^{18} 
10^{30} 
Quadrillion 
10^{15} 
10^{24} 
Trillion 
10^{12} 
10^{18} 
Billiard 
10^{15} 

Billion 
10^{9} 
10^{12} 
Milliard 
10^{9} 

Million 
10^{6} 
10^{6} 
Name 
Value 
Authorities 

AHD4 
CED 
COD 
OED2 
OEDnew 
RHD2 
SOED3 
W3 
UM 

Googol 
10100 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
Googolplex 
10googol (1010100) 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
✓ 
The words in the above list that are ending with ‘–illion’ apart from million are derived from Latin by adding prefixes such as bi, tri, etc. to the stem –illion. In dictionary form, ‘Centillion’ is the highest name ending with –illion. The Oxford English Dictionary remarks that the names, Googol and Googolplex are not in formal mathematical use.
Australian Naming System of Large Numbers
There are many types of naming systems in the world for integer powers of ten, among them Short Scale and Large Scale are two important and main naming systems. These two types of scales are identical for whole number smaller than 1,000,000,000 (10^{9}), such as one thousand or one million and they are different for larger numbers starting from 10^{9 }Considering identical names, short scale form uses one thousand where as long scale uses multipliers of one million. For instance: a billion is denoted as 10^{3 }million in short scale and 10^{6 }million in long scale.
Long Scale system is very much handy in introducing new terms for intervening multipliers and especially shows its importance in replacing the typical words ending with –ion and –iard.
Easy to Remember Derivations for Short and Long Scales
Short Scale
A Billion is denoted as 10^{9 }in short scale form i.e. 1,000,000,000, a Trillion is written as 10^{9 }i.e. 1,000,000,000,000, and so on. From this, an n –illion can be derived or equals to 10^{3n+3.}
Long Scale
In long scale, a billion is denoted as 10^{9 } i.e. 1,000,000,000,000 and a trillion is denoted as 10^{18 }i.e. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 and so on. Thus, an n –illion is equal to 10^{6n }
Usage of Naming Systems of Large Numbers in different Countries
Does it really make a difference while naming large numbers in different countries across the world!? Absolutely Yes! In one country a billion is denoted with nine zeroes whereas the same billion is denoted with twelve zeroes in some other country. Therefore, there is a huge difference in between large and short scale system of naming large numbers.
Different countries use different scale system while naming very big numbers. Number names from any country seems like they are rendered in their respective country language but according to shared etymology, they are similar.
Actually, short scale naming system is used in Arabicspeaking and Englishspeaking countries like Brazil and several other countries. The long scale system is used in most countries of Continental Europe, Spanish speaking (except Spanish speakers born in English countries and culture, for example: Puerto Rico), French speaking, Portuguese speaking countries (except Brazil).
Some languages especially in South Asia and East Asia, use large number naming system which is different from long and short scale systems. The best example is Indian Numbering System.
Australia along with Englishspeaking Canada, USA, New Zealand, Ireland, Brazil, UK (after 1974), and most other Englishspeaking countries use Short Scale System of Naming Large Numbers. Long Scale System of Naming Large Numbers is used in countries including UK (before 1974), France, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Poland, Italy, Spain, etc. Some countries like India, Japan, China, Korea, and Greece use neither scales.
Final Conclusion
Things become complicated when you go counting numbers beyond million, billion, and trillion. We might get confused on how many zeroes do we need to put in a trillion, counting each and every individual zero, etc. Therefore, these large numbers are broken down into groups of three zeroes. For example; it is easy to read and write a trillion with four sets of three zeroes than counting out twelve separate zeroes. However, somehow if you manage counting and writing twelve zeroes for a trillion, just imagine about reading and writing out an octillion with 27 zeroes and a centillion with 303 zeroes. Now, you must have realized the importance of using Naming large number system and definitely be thankful to the naming large numbers since you only need to remember nine and 101 sets of three zeroes.
Using ‘Powers of 10’ in Mathematics and Science, you can easily express or write how many zeroes are exactly needed for these large numbers. You can understand how easier it is to read and write a bunch of zeroes using powers of 10 in a very big number like below.
Quintillion = 1018 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000
Decillion = 1033 or 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
The short cut for writing a billion is 10^{9 }that means ten to the power of nine. Nine indicates the total number of zeroes required to write a billion.